He taught the importance of both an understanding of God's redemptive love. Pope Benedict revived a number of traditions, including elevating the Tridentine Mass to a more prominent position, he strengthened the relationship between the Catholic Church and art , promoted the use of Latin , reintroduced traditional papal garments, for which reason he was called "the pope of aesthetics ". He has been described as "the main intellectual force in the Church" since the mids.
On 11 February , Benedict unexpectedly announced his resignation in a speech in Latin before the cardinals, citing a "lack of strength of mind and body" due to his advanced age. His resignation became effective on 28 February , he is the first pope to resign since Gregory XII in , the first to do so on his own initiative since Celestine V in As pope emeritus, Benedict retains the style of His Holiness , the title of pope, continues to dress in the papal colour of white, he was succeeded by Pope Francis on 13 March , he moved into the newly renovated monastery Mater Ecclesiae for his retirement on 2 May He is the third and youngest child of Joseph Ratzinger, Sr.
His mother's family was from South Tyrol. Pope Benedict's elder brother, Georg Ratzinger , is a Catholic priest and is the former director of the Regensburger Domspatzen choir, his sister, Maria Ratzinger, who never married, managed Cardinal Ratzinger's household until her death in At the age of five, Ratzinger was in a group of children who welcomed the visiting Cardinal Archbishop of Munich, Michael von Faulhaber , with flowers.
Struck by the cardinal's distinctive garb, he announced that day that he wanted to be a cardinal, he attended the elementary school in Aschau am Inn , renamed in his honour in Ratzinger's family his father, bitterly resented the Nazis , his father's opposition to Nazism resulted in demotions and harassment of the family. Following his 14th birthday in , Ratzinger was conscripted into the Hitler Youth—as membership was required by law for all year-old German boys after March —but was an unenthusiastic member who refused to attend meetings, according to his brother. In , one of Ratzinger's cousins, a year-old boy with Down syndrome, was taken away by the Nazi regime and murdered during the Action T4 campaign of Nazi eugenics.
In , while still in seminary, he was drafted into the German anti-aircraft corps as Luftwaffenhelfer. Ratzinger trained in the German infantry; as the Allied front drew closer to his post in , he deserted back to his family's home in Traunstein after his unit had ceased to exist, just as American troops established a headquarters in the Ratzinger household. As a German soldier, he was interned in a prisoner of war camp , but released a few months at the end of the war in May Ratzinger recalled: "at the moment the elderly Archbishop laid his hands on me, a little bird — a lark — flew up from the altar in the high cathedral and trilled a little joyful song.
It is bordered to the north by the United States. Covering 2,, square kilometres, the nation is the fifth largest country in the Americas by total area and the 13th largest independent state in the world. With an estimated population of over million people, the country is the eleventh most populous state and the most populous Spanish-speaking state in the world, while being the second most populous nation in Latin America after Brazil.
Mexico is a federation comprising 31 states and Mexico City , a special federal entity, the capital city and its most populous city. Pre-Columbian Mexico dates to about BC and is identified as one of five cradles of civilization and was home to many advanced Mesoamerican civilizations such as the Olmec , Teotihuacan , Zapotec and Aztec before first contact with Europeans. In , the Spanish Empire conquered and colonized the territory from its politically powerful base in Mexico-Tenochtitlan , administered as the viceroyalty of New Spain.
Three centuries the territory became a nation state following its recognition in after the Mexican War of Independence. The post-independence period was tumultuous, characterized by economic inequality and many contrasting political changes; the Mexican—American War led to a territorial cession of the extant northern territories to the United States. The Pastry War , the Franco-Mexican War , a civil war, two empires, the Porfiriato occurred in the 19th century; the Porfiriato was ended by the start of the Mexican Revolution in , which culminated with the promulgation of the Constitution and the emergence of the country's current political system as a federal, democratic republic.
Mexico has the 11th largest by purchasing power parity; the Mexican economy is linked to those of its North American Free Trade Agreement partners the United States. In , Mexico became the first Latin American member of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development , it is classified as an upper-middle income country by the World Bank and a newly industrialized country by several analysts.
The country is considered both a regional power and a middle power, is identified as an emerging global power. Mexico is an ecologically megadiverse country , ranking fourth in the world for its biodiversity. Mexico receives a huge number of tourists every year: in , it was the sixth most-visited country in the world, with 39 million international arrivals. In the colonial era, back when Mexico was called New Spain this territory became the Intendency of Mexico and after New Spain achieved independence from the Spanish Empire it came to be known as the State of Mexico with the new country being named after its capital: the City of Mexico , which itself was founded in on top of the ancient Mexica capital of Mexico-Tenochtitlan.
However, one attestation in the late 16th-century manuscript known as "the Bancroft dialogues" suggests the second vowel was short, so that the true etymology remains uncertain; the suffix -co is the Nahuatl locative , making the word a place name. This meaning might refer to Tenochtitlan's position in the middle of Lake Texcoco ; the system of interconnected lakes, of which Texcoco formed the center, had the form of a rabbit , which the Mesoamericans pareidolically associated with the moon rabbit. France France the French Republic, is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories.
The overseas territories include French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic and Indian oceans; the country's 18 integral regions span a combined area of , square kilometres and a total population of France, a sovereign state, is a unitary semi-presidential republic with its capital in Paris , the country's largest city and main cultural and commercial centre. Other major urban areas include Lyon , Toulouse , Bordeaux and Nice. During the Iron Age , what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by a Celtic people.
Rome annexed the area in 51 BC, holding it until the arrival of Germanic Franks in , who formed the Kingdom of Francia. During the Renaissance , French culture flourished and a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would become the second largest in the world; the 16th century was dominated by religious civil wars between Protestants. In the late 18th century, the French Revolution overthrew the absolute monarchy, established one of modern history's earliest republics, saw the drafting of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which expresses the nation's ideals to this day.
In the 19th century, Napoleon established the First French Empire , his subsequent Napoleonic Wars shaped the course of continental Europe. Following the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous succession of governments culminating with the establishment of the French Third Republic in France was a major participant in World War I , from which it emerged victorious, was one of the Allies in World War II , but came under occupation by the Axis powers in Following liberation in , a Fourth Republic was established and dissolved in the course of the Algerian War ; the Fifth Republic , led by Charles de Gaulle, remains today.
Algeria and nearly all the other colonies became independent in the s and retained close economic and military connections with France. France has long been a global centre of art and philosophy, it hosts the world's fourth-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites and is the leading tourist destination, receiving around 83 million foreign visitors annually.
France is a developed country with the world's sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP, tenth-largest by purchasing power parity. In terms of aggregate household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs well in international rankings of education, health care, life expectancy, human development.
ROMA E LO STUDIUM URBIS
France is considered a great power in global affairs, being one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council with the power to veto and an official nuclear-weapon state. Modern France is still named today "Francia" in Italian and Spanish, "Frankreich" in German and "Frankrijk" in Dutch , all of which have more or less the same historical meaning. There are various theories as to the origin of the name Frank. Following the precedents of Edward Gibbon and Jacob Grimm , the name of the Franks has been linked with the word frank in English, it has been suggested that the meaning of "free" was adopted because, after the conquest of Gaul , only Franks were free of taxation.
Another theory is that it is derived from the Proto-Germanic word frankon, which translates as javelin or lance as the throwing axe of the Franks was known as a francisca. However, it has been determined that these weapons were named because of their use by the Franks, not the other way around; the oldest traces of human life in what is now France date from 1. Over the ensuing millennia, Humans were confronted by a harsh and variable climate, marked by several glacial eras. Early hominids led a nomadic hunter-gatherer life. France has a large number of decorated caves from the upper Palaeolithic era, including one of the most famous and best preserved, Lascaux.
At the end of the last glacial period, the climate became milder. After strong demographic and agricultural development between the 4th and 3rd millennia, metallurgy appeared at the end of the 3rd millennium working gold and bronze, iron. France has numerous megalithic sites from the Neolithic period, including the exceptiona. Chile Chile the Republic of Chile, is a South American country occupying a long, narrow strip of land between the Andes to the east and the Pacific Ocean to the west.
It borders Peru to the north, Bolivia to the northeast, Argentina to the east, the Drake Passage in the far south. Chile claims about 1,, square kilometres of Antarctica , although all claims are suspended under the Antarctic Treaty ; the arid Atacama Desert in northern Chile contains great mineral wealth, principally copper. The small central area dominates in terms of population and agricultural resources, is the cultural and political center from which Chile expanded in the late 19th century when it incorporated its northern and southern regions.
Southern Chile is rich in forests and grazing lands, features a string of volcanoes and lakes; the southern coast is a labyrinth of fjords, canals, twisting peninsulas, islands. Spain conquered and colonized the region in the midth century, replacing Inca rule in the north and centre, but failing to conquer the independent Mapuche who inhabited what is now south-central Chile. After declaring its independence from Spain in , Chile emerged in the s as a stable authoritarian republic. In the 19th century, Chile saw significant economic and territorial growth, ending Mapuche resistance in the s and gaining its current northern territory in the War of the Pacific after defeating Peru and Bolivia.
The regime, headed by Augusto Pinochet , ended in after it lost a referendum in and was succeeded by a center-left coalition which ruled through four presidencies until The modern sovereign state of Chile is among South America's most economically and stable and prosperous nations, with a high-income economy and high living standards. It leads Latin American nations in rankings of human development, income per capita, state of peace, economic freedom, low perception of corruption , it ranks high regionally in sustainability of the state , democratic development.
Chile is a member of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development , joining in , it has the lowest homicide rate in the Americas after Canada. There are various theories about the origin of the word Chile. According to 17th-century Spanish chronicler Diego de Rosales , the Incas called the valley of the Aconcagua "Chili" by corruption of the name of a Picunche tribal chief called Tili, who ruled the area at the time of the Incan conquest in the 15th century. Another theory points to the similarity of the valley of the Aconcagua with that of the Casma Valley in Peru, where there was a town and valley named Chili.
Other theories say Chile may derive its name from a Native American word meaning either "ends of the earth" or "sea gulls". Another origin attributed to chilli is the onomatopoeic cheele-cheele—the Mapuche imitation of the warble of a bird locally known as trile; the Spanish conquistadors heard about this name from the Incas, the few survivors of Diego de Almagro's first Spanish expedition south from Peru in —36 called themselves the "men of Chilli".
Almagro is credited with the universalization of the name Chile, after naming the Mapocho valley as such; the older spelling "Chili" was in use in English until at least before switching to " Chile ". Stone tool evidence indicates humans sporadically frequented the Monte Verde valley area as long as 18, years ago. About 10, years ago, migrating indigenous Peoples settled in fertile valleys and coastal areas of what is present-day Chile.
The Incas extended their empire into what is now northern Chile, but the Mapuche resisted many attempts by the Inca Empire to subjugate them, despite their lack of state organization, they fought against his army. The result of the bloody three-day confrontation known as the Battle of the Maule was that the Inca conquest of the territories of Chile ended at the Maule river.
In , while attempting to circumnavigate the globe, Ferdinand Magellan discovered the southern passage now named after him thus becoming the first European to set foot on what is now Chile; the next Europeans to reach Chile were Diego de Almagro and his band of Spanish conquistadors, who came from Peru in seeking gold. The Spanish encountered various cultures that supported themselves principally through slash-and-burn agriculture and hunting; the conquest of Chile began in earnest in and was carried out by Pedro de Valdivia , one of Francisco Pizarro's lieutenants, who founded the city of Santiago on 12 February Veneto Veneto is one of the 20 regions of Italy.
Its population is ranking fifth in Italy; the region's capital is Venice.
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Veneto was part of the Roman Empire until the 5th century AD. After a feudal period, it was part of the Republic of Venice until Venice ruled for centuries over one of the largest and richest maritime republics and trade empires in the world. We will check that out as soon as possible. CF 35, p. CF 33 p. Quartalschrift , 50 , Bartholomaeus fl. Bartholomaeus Anglicus Bartholomew Glanville, late 12th century, England - c.
English friar, born in Suffolk in the late 12th century or in any case before John Leland's connection of Bartholomew with the Glanville family from Suffolk is only corroborated by a late fourteenth-century colophon in Cambridge, Peterhouse, MS Studied natural sciences and theology at Oxford under Robert Grosseteste. Thereafter studies at the U. Salimbene, Chronica , ed. Holder-Egger, Not known to have reached the magisterium.
In , he came to Magdenburg in the Saxony province where a Franciscan studium had been created in as lector, at the request of minister general John Parenti and the Franciscan general chapter of Aside from biblical studies and the production of sermons, he composed as lector in Magdeburg after ca. Bartholomew apparently wrote this work for fellow friars and theology students, who needed a wide, encyclopaedic knowledge of many disciplines but did not have access to or time to study the individual disciplines in depth, and could make do with at times superficial treatments of the topics at hand.
The work was inspired by the idea elaborated by Isidore, and the Victorines and subsequently by Bonaventure that the knowledge of the properties of visible things would lead the inquisitive mind towards contemplation of God Invisibilia enim Dei per ea quae facta sunt intellecta conspiciuntur Rom.
Due to its wide scope, the work quickly became a best-seller, with many possible functions in the fields of exegesis, homeletics, education etc. In addition, De Proprietatibus Rerum soon became the basis for a wide range of Latin and vernacular reworkings. Meyer , On top of this, De Proprietatibus Rerum soon became the basis for several moralized preaching encyclopedias, either through the inclusion in the margin or the body of the text of moralizations of the naturalia presented, or through complete reworkings of those elements of the text that were most suited for preaching purposes.
See for instance the Tractatus Septiformis de Moralitatibus of Marcus of Orvieto see on this in particular the studies of Heinz Meyer , and Baudouin van den Abeele. In , Bartholomaeus Anglicus was elected provincial minister of the Austria province. He fulfilled this office for one or two terms and then moved to the Bohemia province, where he again fulfilled the post of provincial minister. In this quality, he resolved a dispute between Duke Boleslaw and the cathedral chapter of Crakow. In , Bartholomaeus was appointed papal legate north of the Carpathians by Alexander IV, with the added task to engage in crusade preaching in Bohemia, Moravia, Poland, and Austria.
Early , he was in Rome, and he received the appointment of bishop of Lukow North of Cracow , but it is not known whether Bartholomaeus ever made it there. The Franciscan provincial chapter of Halberstadt elected him in his absence to the position of provincial minister of Saxony in To take up this position, Bartholomaeus returned to Magdeburg. He retained the office until his death in Some copies of letters by and to him from this period one from 16 October about the right to hear confession, and a copy of a letter sent to him by Bonaventure in still survive.
De Proprietatibus Rerum [in all at least Latin manuscripts, fragments not included] a. Madrid, Nac. Ashmole ; Oxford, Bodl. Calci 41 ff. Fr, [French]; Ste. Dominikanerkloster 14 book ff. See also MSS 22 ff. Seymour et. For copies documented in English ownership during the MA, see M. Library Record , 9 , Commentaria in Evangelia Marci et Matthei? Twelve printed editions of De Proprietatibus Rerum before the end of the fifteenth century. Hain, Repertorium Bibliographicum I, no. See also the study of Quarg :. Liber de Proprietatibus Rerum a.
Book XIX. Litaka, PhD Diss. Illinois Univ. James Long, De diversis artibus, 78 n. Iolanda Ventura, De diversis artibus, 79 n. Seymour, 2 Vols. Princeton, ; M. An Edition of the Plimpton Manuscript, Diss. Some of these date from the medieval period. An incunable edition of an anonymous translation into Dutch appeared in Brent A. For more information on vernacularizations, and late medieval and modern editions of them, see Meyer , and other works in the bibliography below. For a more extensive overview, see Meyer , Einleitung, passim :.
Festgabe zum Later reprinted in: Idem, Lives and Miracles of the Saints. Actes du colloque de Mortagne-au-Perche, avril , ed. Katherine E. Actes du colloque international Mont-Saint-Michel, septembre , ed. Atti del convegno Lecce, aprile , ed. Een bloemlezing uit de middelnederlandse artesliteratuur , ed. Orlanda S. Kartographische Konzepte , ed. Berlin: Akademie Verlag, I, ; I francescani e le scienze. Assisi, ottobre , Convegni S. Italian friar from Lucignano near Siena. First joined the Conventual Franciscans. Studied philosophy, classical literature including Greek and Hebrew , and theology.
Eventually he reached the doctorate in Theology at the University of Bologia probably in Already during his formative years he was recognized as a gifted preacher, and several times he functioned as official preacher for his order during general chapter meetings Assisi , Milan , Florence , and Rome , and on other important occasions. Also active as a theologian and preacher at the final sessions of the council of Trente. His sermon held at the council on 6 December was subsequently published in Bressanone.
Wrote about the council, church reform and related religious matters, and presented the works of providence in the history of the Roman church and the papacy. While teaching, he experienced a religious crisis of some sort, and eventually obtained permission to join the Capuchins. After his noviciate in the Capuchin order, he functioned as a lector generalis in theology and sacred eloquence preaching techniques and engaged in labors of spiritual assistance.
He died in Milan in Oratio de religone eiusque Praefecto deligendo Bologna: Alessandro Benati, Written and preached at the occasion of the Conventual general chapter of Assisi of the same year. De nobilitate Urbis Mediolani Bologna, Written and preached at the occasion of the general chapter of Milan of the same year and dedicated to the Conventual master general. It amounts to a history of Milan from the Insubri to Sforza rule. Preached on 11 June and dedicated to Cardinal Ferdinando de'Medici.
This work exhibits a large knowledge of Italian vernacular literature. Oratio B. Christianae Patres secunda Dominica adventus Dominini Sabiensem, In this, Bartolomeo urges the council fathers to take appropriate measures to combat the ills of their times and to restore pontifical authority. De admirabili Dei O. Dedicated to Cardinal M. It is the written account of a speech held in the context of the general chapter of Rome Bartolomeo used a large number of Greek and Latin sources, notably Orosius and Eusebius to elaborate on the role of providence in the history of Rome, and to call on heretics and schismatics to return to the Church.
De sacrosanctae Theologiae praestantia oratio Pavia, s. Based on his Pavia theology courses. Rome, , 37; Giovanni Franchini, Bibliosofia e memorie letterarie di scrittori Francescani conventuali Ch'hanno scritto dopo 'Anno Modena: Eredi Soliani Stampatori, , 80; Sbaraglia, Supplementum et castigatio ad Scriptores Entered Capuchin order in the Bologna province in Later we find him in the Capuchin province of Parma which was split off from the Bologna province by Active as a preacher, lector and definitor. Was particularly successful as a teacher of theology to young Capuchin friars for ca.
To this purpose he wrote a complete Cursus of philosophy and theology on the basis of the works of Bonaventure. Tried to turn Bonaventure into the teacher of the order, by linking him to Scotus and Thomas of Aquino. Wrote also glossaries on the biblical works of Bonaventure for preaching purposes , and several minor expository works.
Bartolomeo died at Modena, on August 24, Bonaventurae Seraphici Doctoris , 3 Vols. Lyon: L. Cursus Theologicus ad mentem Serafici Doctoris S. Bonaventurae , 2 Vols. Lyon: Comba, Glossa seu Summa ex Omnibus S. Bonaventurae Expositionibus in S. Lyon: J. Pousel, Tabula Generalis in Opera Omnia D. Sabrina Stroppa Parma: Curia provinciale Cappuccini, Teologia mistica del serafico dottore S. This work was apparently never printed. Review AFH 96 , ]; B. Miscellanea di studi offerti a Bernardino de Armellada in occasione del suo 80o compleanno , ed.
Italian friar from Feltre. Born at the beginning of the fifteenth century. Became master of theology. Was appointed papal legate for Venice by Sixtus IV. Defended the immaculate conception at the Franciscan general chapter of Ferrara His defense was printed in P. Mariae Bologna, , Ianua Scoti : Uppsala, Univ. Sbaralea, Supplementum ed. Entered the order in the Bergamo province.
Several times guardian and definitor. Best-known for his anti-calvinist and ant-Lutheran preaching rallies. Wrote at least two as yet unpublished works. Bernardo di Bologna, Bibliotheca scriptorum ordinis minorum S. Francisci capuccinorum Venice, , 36; Valdemiro da Bergamo, I conventi ed i cappuccini bergamaschi Milan, , 70; A. Tuscan friar. Entered the order in After his studies he became lector of the arts and theology.
Predominantly known as spiritual author and itinerant preacher. Travelled through Italy, preaching penance. The last 15 years of his life he spent in the convent of S. Peter in Montorio Rome. Luce dell'anima desiderosa per ascendere alla perfettione Rome, [8 editions between and , also several translations into French, Latin and Spnish]. Paradiso de'contemplativi Rome, [principal spiritual work of the author, heavily dependent on Henry of Herp's work Eden seu paradisus Contemplativorum. Bartholomew's Paradiso received a Latin translation in Cologne and a Portugese translation in Lissabon ].
Composta dal M. Bartolomeo da Saluthio Minore Osserv. Aggiontevi le salutationi divotissime a Giesu et alla beatissima Vergine dell'istesso autore, non piu stampate Venice: Barezzo Barezzi, Le sette trombe per isvegliare il peccatore a penitenza Bergamo, [18 editions between and , also several French editions. Latin edition in Freiburg in Breisgau , English translation in ]. Porta della salute Turin, [confession manual for the lay believer. Latin translation in Cologne, ]. Raccolto, et nuovamente dato in luce da F. Dichiarazione sopra il Pater Noster , ed.
A complete edition of his works was published as: Opere spirituali del R. Bartolomeo da Salutio, Min. Riformato Venice, A partial modern edition of his works appeared as Il sacro cignno, prose e poesie del Ven. Bartolomeo da Salutio. Scelta e prefazione del P. Sarri Florence, Bartolomeo da Salutio, Dichiarazione sopra il Pater Noster, ed.
Cipriani, Frate Francesco 65,2 I, ;. Friar from Mallorca. Custos of the Mallorca Observants Active preacher. Many of his sermons survived. Sermones de S. Francisco , see S. XV ', Estudis Franciscans , 43 , Bover, Biblioteca de escritos baleares Palma, I, ; I. Author of the Vita F. Duodecim Apostolorum S. Presbyteri Cardinalis Bibliothecarij Rome: Typis Haeredum Corbelletti, Bartholomaeus de Alverna fl. Franciscan missionary from Tuscany. Vicar of the Bosnian vicariate. Was given the charge at the general chapter of Aquilea, to rework the statutes for the Holy Land province.
His regulations were ratified at the general chapter of Friar from Guatemala. Took the habit there in He died at Sanayac. Francisco , ed. Squier London, See on the manuscript dissemination of this work the remarks of Adams and of Castro y Castro. Bohemian friar, probably born in or near Prague.
Very active in the Polish mission and involved with crusade preaching against the pagans. No extant works. Franciscan theologian. Studied at the arts faculty of Bologna University before his entrance in the Franciscan order. There are some indications that he was active as inquisitor in the neighbourhood of Anagni and later in the Roman province of the order but there might be a confusion with Bartholomew of Amelia, another Franciscan friar known to be active as inquisitor in that same province. Studied at Paris for a degree in the later s. We have a Sentences commentary from this period, and some of his sermons can be dated as being held during the academic year He probably must be identified with the Bartholomew who between or maybe between appeared as regent master of theology in Paris, as precursor of Matthew of Aquasparta, and followed the teachings of Bonaventure and Pecham over and against Thomas Aquinas in his disputed quaestions.
It is not known whether Bartholomew became involved with this issue. He was, in any case, present at the general chapter at Assisi as master of theology , and became involved in settling the correctorium issue, as well as in drafting up the bull Exiit qui Seminat of Nicholas III together with John pecham and Walther of Bruges.
Active in Bologna between and , where he, probably as regent lector, produced a series of sermons de sanctis and de tempore and several quaestiones on the glorified Virgin Mary. In he was elected provincial minister of the province of Bologna, a position he held until Bartholomew was still in Bologna in July In I-IV Sent. Text, as basis for possible future reworking. See Doucet, XVII, sin. Tractatus de luce fr. Bartholomaei de Bononia , ed. The work makes use of the Oxford physical theories of light and attaches moral considerations to them.
It amounts to a concept of affective spirituality aiming at transforming the soul by means of the incarnated word]. Virginis' di Bartolomeo da Bologna O. Quaestiones Disputatae de Fide , ed. Quaestiones Disputatae de Corporali B. Assumptione [On mariology], ed.
Weisweiler, Opuscula et textus Historiam Ecclesie. Sermo de Maria , in: A. Pecham', Antonianum , 8 , ; G. Jahrhunderts in Cod. Piana, Chartularium , AF , 11 , , no. Min Rome, ; F. Putallaz, Figures franciscaines. Po r. Expositione dela regula di frati Menori Venice, Esposizione della regola dei frati Minori di s. The edition can be accessed via Google Books. Spanish friar.
Veritas liberavit vos
Entered the order in the St. Gabriel province. Eventually, Bartolomeo was elected provincial minister of the Mexican San Diego province. Slownik Bartlomieja z Bydgoszczy. Kedelska, I. Kwilecka, A. Luczak Warchaw, After the death of his wife Margherita di Guido de' Baldovini, with whom he had two daughters, he entered the Franciscan convent S. Maria degli Angeli Previously, from onwards, he was already involved in the Fraternita dei disciplinati di S.
After his religious formation, he became active as missionary in Marocco and Algeria. Between and , he was back in Italy, trying to seek martyrdom by taking care of plague victims in Gubbio and Temi He left the Observants for the new Capuchin branch one of the first disciples of Matteo da Bascio. Venerated as confessor in Italy and in the order, who regards him as a beatus. De Unione Anime cum supereminenti lumine Perugia, , f. It appeared in print after his death, in an edition made by his disciple Hilarius Pichi Pico in Another edition with an epilogue by Girolamo da Molfetta, an Observant friar who first became Capuccin and later transferred to Calvinism, aroused the suspicion of the ecclesiastical authorities.
The same condemnation of this second edition is found in the Elenchus Librorum Omnium tum in Tridentino Clementinoque indice, tum in aliis omnibus sacrae Indicis Congregationis particularibus decretis hactenus prohibitorum from the work of Maddaleno Capiferreus OP. Eventually, this second edition was placed on the official index of forbidden books issued by order of pope Alexander VII in Thereafter, this condemnation was repeated in every issue of the Index Librorum Prohibitorum until the last one, issued by Pius XI in Unione Animae cum Supereminenti Lumine , ed.
The work apparently is heavily indebted to the writings of Ubertino of Casala and Jacopone da Todi. The first seven chapters in particular provide a lengthy exposition on the character of Divine Love and its workings in man. The second part of the work deals with the roads towards union with the Divine the roads of humility, faith, the Eucharist and frequent communion , renunciation of self-love, and the help of infused grace. The third and last part of the work describes the workings of love in the soul that already has reached union with the Divine, which can be compared with the status of the blessed Heaven.
Storia patria Umbria 80 [published ] , Friar from Milan. Preacher and confessor, as well as commissioner of the Observant Milan province. The work gives exact definitions of sins. It was recommended to the clergy on the synods of Basel and Augsburg Mariano da Firenze, Compendium Chronicarum , ed.
Quaracchi, , ; Waddding, Scriptores ed.
Scripture and Ethics Bibliography | New Testament | Bible
Master of theology. Thereafter, the pope sent him to Constantinople, to argue the case for religious unification with the Byzantine Emperor and the orthodox clergy, and to organise European support for the Byzantines against the advancing Turcs. During his stay at Constantinople, Bartolomeo also campained for the improvement of the Latin Christians in Byzantine society. After his return from Constantinople, Bartolomeo once again was sent on an ambassadorial journey, this time to Queen Giovanna of Sicily, to ask for her military support against the Turcs.
Wadding, Annales Minorum , ad an. Eubel, VI, , , ; A. Bachelor of theology. Appointed bishop of Marocco after the death of Pero de San Cipriano. He probably was the bishop who accorded an indulgence of 40 days to the confraternity of Santo Domingo de Silos. Cardinal of Genoa and cardinal preacher of St. Lawrence at Damaso 21 December Together with other cardinals involved with a conspiracy to subdue the pope, he was emprisoned by Urban VI at Nocera 11 January The pope had them tortured.
When urban VI had to leave Nocera, due the pressure from the armies of the king of Naples, he took the insubordinate cardinals with him to Genoa, where he had them executed. Eubel, Hierarchia catholica , 2nd Ed. Baluze, Vitae Paparum Avenionensium , ed. Joined the Observant branch of the order while studying at the arts faculty of Perugia in , influenced by the preaching of Giovanni da Capistrano. Studied at the Observant study house at the Monteripido convent Perugia. In , at the general chapter held at Rome under Givanni da Capistrano, Bartolomeo was elected guardian of the Aracoeli convent; a position he was to keep for three terms.
Apostlic nuntius in , in which function, Bartolomeo preached the crusade against the Turcs. Provincial vicar of the Candia vicariate and that of the Holy Land in In reality only administrator of the Candia Vicariate. Further crusade preaching rallies as apostolic preacher, full quadragesimal cycles and sermon rallies against usury and in support of the Monti di Pieta between and Elected guardian of the S.
Lucchese convent near Poggibonsi in april of During these last years at S. Most of his sermons are lost. Flores S. Hieronymi : Florence, Biblioteca Nazionale, Conv. Sermones only two of his sermons, held at Santa Croce in Florence in April , and respectively dealing with the resurrection and with the Gospel of John, have survived in the form of schematic Italian reportations : Florence, Biblioteca Riccardiana C f. Notizie storiche col testo dantesco e commento Siena, Franciscan missionary and papal ambassador. Later, he was the companion of William of Rubruck on a papal ambassadorial and missionary journey to the Great Khan of the Mongols in Due to a decline in his health, Bartolomeo was not able to return back to Europe and spent the rest of his life in China.
He figures not always in a very flattering way in the travel account of William of Rubruck. Bartholomaeus de Feltre Bellati, d. Studied theology at the studium generale of Bologna. Taught at this same studium as lector of theology ca. Strong defender of Scotist positions, and active preacher. Beforehand pontifical legate in Venice between and Defended in a public debate Ferrara, the immaculate conception of Mary against the Dominican theologian Vincent Bandelli.
Present at the general chapter of Perugia in CF 5, p. De Immaculata Conceptionis V. Mariae , edited in: P. Marie Bologna, , I, ]. In I-II Sent. Sbaralea, Suppl. Madrid, X, no. Spanish friar and missionary originating from Valencia Spain. He remained there for a number of years. Yet in , he is found in the Candelaria mission Texas , and a year later he is active in San Antonio de Valero Texas.
Five years later, in , he is working in the San Francisco de la Espada mission. There he dies on 9 July In he published his Manual para administrar los santos sacramentos. Shortly before his death, he probably had returned to San Francisco de la Espada. It is a bilingual work, with Spanish in one column and a local language in the other column, with explanatory Latin expressions in the margin.
Observant friar from Porreras. Lector of theology in the San Francisco de Asis friary of Palma, custos and provincial definitor. Biblioteca de Autores Baleares , ed. Gelabert, I, no. Born in Venice in , he entered the Conventual Franciscans at an early age. Received a thorough theological and also humanist education in the order and became a respected lector and preacher.
As early as , he preached doctrines that were considered Lutheran. Three years later in , the authorities ordered him to be arrested. With the help of several high placed Venetians, he was able to escape and to find refuge in Germany. In Strasbourg Bartolomeo also became acquainted with Bucer and with Zwinglian doctrines. He still considered himself to be a Catholic, however, and in , he returned to Venice, hoping to help bring about a reconciliation between the parties.
Bartolomeo was no longer living in a Franciscan community he might already have been disavowed by , but in a house of his own, where he began to hold religious gatherings in Following accusations of Lutheranism, Bartolomeo moved to Rome, where he was arrested at the instigation of the Pope Paul III, who ordered an inquisitorial investigation, but this did not lead to a conviction.
In this context, Bartolomeo redacted a first version of his Fidei et doctrinae ratio , consisting of thesis. He was released and lived and worked for a while in Aquila He worked in the Farfa monastery on his catechism, and later worked in Modena , where he took part in the discussions of the Accademia modenese, which had been founded by the medic and humanist Giovanni Grillenzoni, pupil of Pietro Pomponazzi , the Marches, again in Rome and Padua Murphy, La retorica nel Medioevo. Una storia delle teorie retoriche da s. Ago stino al Rinascimento, introduzione e trad, a cura di V. Licitra, Nuovo Medioevo, 17 Napoli, , pp.
Sabbadini, Storia e critica di testi latini, Medioevo e umanesimo, 1 1 Padova, , 2a ed. Firenze, , 2a ed. Sabbadini, 'Ledere e orazioni edite e inedite di Gasparino Barzizza', Archivio storico lombardo, s. II, 13 , ; ; L. Studien aus dem Antiquariat Jacques Rosenthal, N. Kristeller, II, Storia e letteratura. Raccolta di studi e testi, Roma, Garin, L'educazione in Europa Prohlemi e programmi. Biblioteca di cultura moderna, Bari, , pp. Colombo, 'Gasparino Barzizza a Padova. Texts and Dissertations, 10 Lon don, ; L. Mazzuconi, 'Per una sistemazione dell'epistolario di Gasparino Barzizza', Italia medioevale e umanistica, 20 , ; G.
Per i suoi manoscritti, cfr. Tremolada, 'I manoscritti di Gasparino Barzizza nelle biblioteche milanesi', Libri e documenti, 14 , Lo Parco, Aulo Giano Parrasio. Studio biografico e critico Vasto, ; F. L'Europa in provincia. Collana di cultura meridionale diretta da F. D'Episcopo Cosenza. Sulla sua biblioteca, cfr. Altri furono sottratti dalla biblioteca del Parrasio in epoche successive. Giovanni a Carbonara, e poi alla Biblioteca Nazionale di Napoli. Dipartimento di filologia Manziana, Mercati, De fatis bibliothecae monasterii s.
Columbani Bobiensis et de codice ipso Vat. Mercati, De fatis, p. Tristano, La biblioteca di un umanista, p. O Kristeller, Iter Italicum. Si tratta del codice V B 35, pro veniente dalla preziosa e ricchissima biblioteca di un bibliofilo di Chieti, Romualdo di Sterlich, marchese di Cermignano. Russo, Studi sul Settecento in Abruzzo Chieti, , pp. Accanto al ms. Scuotto — I. Cenci, O. La notizia ci era stata data da un altro discepolo del Barzizza, Gio vanni Tremonti in una nota da lui apposta, nel , sul secondo foglio di guardia del ms.
Mazzuconi, 'Stefano Fieschi', p. Alia autem, super oratione videlicet pro Sexto Roscio, pro Lucio Murena et aliis que post invente fuerunt, usque ad numerum trigenarium et amplius, habeo in alio volumine, que ego exaravi raptim sub doctrina atque lectura famosissimi oratoris et artium doctoris Magistri Gasparini Pergamensis, Patavii , cum essem ego, Johannes 6 L.
Rullum Oratio prima, cuius inicium Que res Acta ipso Cicerone et Antonio consulibus. In exemplo sic fuit: Statilius Maximus. Rursum emendavi ad Tironem et Lactavianum et Dom. Ill oratio eximia? Qui il Tremonti non parla solo delle orazioni scoperte da Poggio nel , ma anche di quelle da lui ritrovate nel ; cfr.
Sabbadini, Le scoperte dei codici, II, Storia e critica, pp. Il codice di Poggio fu, nel , identificato da Augusto Campana nel Vat. Per questo famoso manoscritto, cfr. Ruysschaert, Codices Vaticani Latini. Codices In Bibliotheca Vaticana, , pp. Campana, 'La copia autografa delle otto orazioni ciceroniane scoperte da Poggio nel ', Ciceroniana, 1 , Pecere, 'La subscriptio di Statilio Massimo e la tradizione della Agraria di Cicerone', Italia medioevale e umanistica, 25 , Per la nota poggiana al f.
XII, 1. Pecere, 'La subscriptio, pp. XII, Pecere, 'La subscriptio, p. Dunque il Barzizza, nel commentare a Padova le orazioni appena scoperte da Poggio, si serviva anche del commento di Asconio, scoperto da Poggio a S. Gallo nel Per ora possiamo collazionare gli appunti del codice napoletano che chiameremo N , con le note che Rinuccio Aretino ha scritto a margine di un suo codice — sicuramente almeno in parte autografo — conte nente venti orazioni ciceroniane.
Chigiano latino H VI , della Biblioteca Vaticana; un codice segnalato dal Bertalot e descritto accuratamente dal Lockwood e che, in omaggio al suo autore, chiameremo R. II e note a-b. Nessuna citazione da Asconio ho trovato nel commento alla Pro Milone, che si legge ai ff. Il commento, frammentario, di Asconio Pediano fu scoperto da Poggio a San Gallo, insieme con il testo integro delle Institutiones di Quintiliano. Ill, 8 Venezia, , p. Sabbadini, Storia e critica, pp.
Gualdo, 'Antonio Loschi, segretario apostolico ', Archivio storico italiano, , Cicerone, La retorica a Gaio Erennio, a cura di F. Cancelli, Centro di studi Ciceroniani. Tutte le opere di Cicerone, 32 Milano, , pp. Rinuccio ha trascritto — con l'aiuto di alcuni segretari — le seguenti venti orazioni ciceroniane: 1 de imperio Cn. Se si confronta questo elenco con quello delle quindici orazioni presenti nel codice N, si vede che ben undici orazioni coincidono.
Eccole, nell'ordine in cui si leggono in N: 1 de imperio Cn. Pompeii; 2 pro Milone; 3 in Pisonem; 6 pro Cornelio; 7 post reditum ad Senatum; 8 post reditum ad Quirites; 9 de haruspi cum responsis; 10 de provinciis consularibus; 12 pro Caelio; 13 ad Quirites pridie quam in exilium proficisceretur spuria ; 14 pro domo sua. Vediamo ora l'elenco delle undici orazioni commentate retoricamente dal Loschi nella sua Inquisitio; 1 pro imperio Cn. Come si vede, Rinuccio ha trascritto e annotato due orazioni com mentate sia dal Loschi che dal Barzizza, e precisamente quelle che occupano in tutte e tre gli elenchi i primi due posti: la de imperio Cn.
Pompeii e la pro MHone; per il resto nel codice si leggono -— sia pure in una disposizione diversa — prima le orazioni commentate dal Loschi, poi quelle commentate a Padova dal Barzizza. Vedi inoltre D. Rand New York, , pp. Pubblicazioni dell'Istituto di filologia classica e medievale, 75 Genova, , pp. Lockwood, 'In domo Rinucii', p. Berti e A. Le note di Rinuccio si distinguono in due tipi. All'inizio di ogni orazione troviamo quasi sempre una lunga nota che riassume il contenuto del discorso; questa nota deriva normalmente dal Loschi.
Alla nota contenutistica tiene dietro una breve nota che riconduce l'orazione al genere retorico di appartenenza e ne distingue le principali sezioni retoriche, dalY exordium alla conclusio. Ebbene, questa glossa coincide con gli appunti del codice N nei casi seguenti: a codice R, f. Probabilmente altre corrispondenze si potrebbero riscontrare, analizzando le brevi note, tutte di tipo retorico, che si leggono ai margini di ogni orazione in R, e che, anche quando non coincidono, sono assai vicine agli appunti, dati ovviamente di seguito in assenza del testo di Cicerone, presente solo con brevi lemmi , nel codice N.
Napoli, Istituto Universitario Orientale 10 L. XV in. XVIII; ff. I cart. Codice composito, derivante dalla giustapposizione di 14 fascicoli, di for mato, epoca, materiale diversi. Il curatore settecentesco probabilmente un bibliotecario del marchese di Sterlich , ha preposto al codice e a ciascun fascicolo una tabula, in cui se ne descrive, in bella maiuscola epigrafica, il contenuto.
Legatura del s. XVIII in pelle marrone, ornata a secco con cornice ed elementi floreali. Il codice, proveniente dalla biblioteca privata del marchese di Cermignano, Romualdo di Sterlich cfr. XVIII: maiuscola epigrafica; ff. Non solum tacita Anglum oratio. Constitui sepenumero mecum, vir amplissime Nulla profecto, Leonelle princeps.. II Cart. XVIII, contenuto: ff.
De re ipsa Silvestri Landi epistola ad eandem Isotam. HI Cart. XVex; scrittura umanistica semilibraria, con elementi cancellereschi, e poi tendenza all'italica; ff.
Bruni, Hypocr. Petrarca a Niccolo Acciaioli. V Cart. XVI in. VI Cart. XVIII, contenuto; ff. XVIII, titolo; ff. Vni Cart. Fascicolo di 10 bifogli; filigrana: liocorno a figura intera, rampante, per cui cfr. Briquet, nn. II; 6 f. Franciscus, Truth and Augustinus. Its opening page has a charac teristically Netherlandish, broad, acanthus and floral border, inhabited by small birds, a peacock, animals and grotesque semi-human figures, with Crabbe's arms on a small escutcheon hung on a crozier at the centre of its lowest arm p1.
There is a large capital A for the opening of the proem, gold on a red ground, similar capitals for the opening of each book and smaller coloured capitals for paragraph- and other divisions. A large, almost square miniature with an arched top, its width that of both columns of the text, occupies the upper half of the page, the incipit of the work in red below it. Under a gothic-pinnacled canopy supported by a Corinthian column to one side is a throne on a dais, with a green and gold tapestry behind, set on a tiled floor.
To one side a large opening in the wall gives on to a landscape with shrubs and a tree in its midst and a pair of peacocks beside the tree. From a smaller opening on the other side two men in long habits are emerging. The first, in green with a red bonnet, carries a crozier; the other is tonsured and wears dark monastic dress.
On the throne sits the maiden Truth, benevolent, robed in white with gold embroidery, on her head a jewelled white turban with a gauzy veil below it, her left hand extended and rays of light streaming from her mouth towards Franciscus. He stands bonneted and coiffed alla borgognone and wears a long red robe with a short, ermine-trimmed cape of the same colour and fashion. He is all attention to the sainted figure of Augustinus, rays surrounding his head, who faces him. Augustinus, also bonneted alla borgognone and with his hair similarly dressed, wears a long brown surcoat over a whiteish robe as he makes a gesture of exposition with his hands.
Behind Petrarch, and before his own two attendants, stands Abbot Jan, bonneted, in dark monastic gown and cowl over white. The miniature, which comes closer than any of the 17 N. Geirnaert, in VIaamse Kunst op perkament, nos. Schmitt, in Contempo raries of Erasmus. A Biographical Register of the Renaissance and the Reformation, ed. Bietenholz, 3 vols Toronto etc. Franciscus, Truth, Augustinus and Abbot Crabbe.
TRAPP others to recording the spirit and the letter of Petrarch's vision and indeed of his book, has been attributed to the Master of Margaret of York, who was active in Brugge in The present author hopes that this offering will be an acceptable token of affection, admiration and gratitude, not least for his introduction to Abbot Jan's manuscript. Die aus dem Gegen die Renaissance schien ihm ein sprachliches Indiz zu sprechen.
Victoria Polzer und Dr. Pitra, Spicilegium Solesmense complectens Sanctorum Patrum scriptorumque ecclesiasticorum anecdota hactenus opera Paris, , 4, Eine Abbildung auf fol. Jahr hunderts Die gut kirchliche, mittelalterliche Antichristlegende ist durchweg in antike Formen umgegossen. Gualdo Rosa, I. Nuovo e D. Avesani, Verona nel Quattrocento. La Letteratura. Verona e il suo territorio, Vol IV, P. Ill Verona, , Metrisch und syntaktisch fehlerhafte Verse begegnen in der auf der Basis des Widmungsexemplars erstellten Neuausgabe nicht mehr. Jahrhunderts 9 Im I.
Buch sind nach Vers 35 und Vers je ein Vers, im 2. Buch nach Vers zwei Verse und nach Vers ein Vers ausgefallen. Ich habe darauf verzichtet, die zahlreichen Fehler des Urb. Heist, The Fifteen Signs before Doomsday. Er ist weit davon entfernt, nur die Versifikation eines weit verbreiteten Themas anzustreben. Eine pathetische Sprache und die Beherrschung der antiken Mythologie und Geschichte sind die vor herrschenden Merkmale seiner Dichtung.
Heidnische und christliche Elemente stehen gleichwertig nebeneinander. Fast aufdringlich zeigt der Dichter seine Kenntnis der antiken Dichtung. Der Wiedererkennungseffekt ist beabsichtigt. Die Crisias und das griechische Enkomion auf Bessarion sind beredte Monumente des christlichen Humanismus im Wie die Zeitgenossen und Bessarion selbst das Epos rezipiert " Vgl.
Hamburger Colloquium , ed. Harms - P. Johnson Berlin, , Ss. Gerhardt Nigel F. Liber primus Huc age, Calliope, coetu comitata sororum, Huc propera, plectrumque tene citharamque sonantem. Nunc opus ingenio, nunc summis viribus usus, 1 Verg. Grande opus aggredior, divino motus ab oestro, Quod vatum mentes agitat, cogitque calentes Edere saepe sonos, atque alta silentia rumpit. Ante hoc signa tamen, quae sit missurus ab alto Omnipotens, referam, mirandaque carmine pandam. Inter se reges mundi dominique potentes Miscebunt iras, et proelia dira ciebunt: Nullaque causa dabit vel bellum iusta movebit.
Ast ex infernis ascendens sedibus imis Perque urbes populosque raet spargetque venenum Alecto, et virides spumas diffundet Echidna. Hinc ad bella viros animosque accendet inertes, Irarum tantum atque odiorum mentibus addet. Tunc foribus fractis Furor horridus, ore cruento, Per terras fremet usque vagus, pastusque cruore, Sanguineos ructus exesosque evomet artus.
In cives cives surgent; civilia rursus Bella movebuntur, graviora prioribus illis, Quae socer atque gener gesserunt omine diro. Regia tecta raet victor, castella domosque, Ac tandem spoliis et sanguine plenus abibit. Multa virum strages et passim corpora caesa, Horrendum visu monstrum, per strata iacebunt. Non aderit, caeso moestas qui reddat amico Exequias et lecta manu tegat ossa sepulchro. Hei mihi, quam crudo component membra sepulchro! Et multi rapido demersi ilumine pascent Immanes pisces et guttura longa replebunt.
Crudelis tantum non hausit Sylla cruoris, Non Marius, quantum fundetur tempus in illud. Impius irrumpens armato pectore miles Infantes gladio divellet ab ubere matrum: Turba nocens et, qui iam nil meruere, peribunt. Hic castos thalamos violabit virginis, alter Captivamque tranet dimissa matre puellam. Et miserae matres, tundentes pectora pugnis, Exactae scaevis furiis acrique dolore, Clamorem super astra ferent, divosque vocabunt Crudeles, totumque implebunt aethera planctu.
Illa suum natum crudeli vulnere caesum Deplorans, solvi crescentis fata queretur; Dumque fovet gremio defunctum, semina luctus Nutriet aeterni, gemitus nimiique doloris. Altera, quae dotem egregiam et sponsalia dona Coniugio natae dederat iamiamque pararat, Milite correptam diro tractamque catenis Inquiret, laniata genas, laniata capillos; Et, Cereris ritu, per compita curva recursans, Clamabit natam, non dantem verba vicissim.
Adde, quod est gravius, fraternas surgere cernes Hinc atque hinc acies gladiosque movere minaces, Quales Thebani fratres movere cruenti. In medium exilient matres et pectora nuda Ostendent, nec iam poterunt revocare furentes. Nil poterunt multi gemitus lachrimaeque profusae Uxorum et matrum, non planctus et ipse sororum.
Sed miseri inter se districto cominus ense Cenantes, proprio violabunt sanguine dextras. Inde alii horrendasque dapes coenamque Thyestae 37 Ov. Filius, impatiens tam longam ferre senectam, Patris in exitium veniet crudelis, et illi Miscebit virus, vel guttura falce secabit, Ut possit sceptrum pro libertate tenere. Saeva ob adulterium coniunx de morte mariti Consultans, sancti violabit foedera nexus, Vel despecta viro veluti Medea gemellos Ubere pendentes irata in Tartara mittet.
Hinc fugiens primoque relicto coniuge, laeta Externum inveniet ducetque scelesta secundum. His ubi sic gestis sese exaturavit Alecto, Laeta domum Famis adveniet, quam maxima vallis Et lapidosa tenet Scythiae glacialibus oris. Hic proprius locus est sterilis, sine munere Bacchi Et Cereris, raras qui tantum germinat herbas. Pascitur his obscoena Fames et flebile monstrum, Pallor, in ore iacet, sunt concava lumina, visu Horribilis torvo, tenuissima corpore toto, Hirtus crinis inest, plenae rubigine fauces, Articuli longi macie, trepidantia labra, Ventris habet pro ventre locum, possuntque videri Viscera et ossa simul, quae pendent arida lumbis.
En ego, cui semper sunt tristia proelia cordi, Cui sanguis caedesque placent rerumque ruinae, Commovi cunctos ad bella horrenda tyrannos. Commovi fratres et ad arma cruenta coegi. Omne nefas movi furiato plena veneno, Et iam iam multo saturata cruore recessi. Tu modo perge, precor, terrasque invade patentes, 72 Ov. Hinc et agris teneras segetes evelle, supersint Ne laetae fruges, nec sit spes ulla futuris. Ast horrenda Fames, precibus commota sororis, Consurget subito terrasque invadet apertas, Omnia consumens, rabido feret omnia morsu.
O miseros, illo quos tempore terra tenebit! Antiquam vitam repetent, herbasque virentes Aut comedent patula delapsas arbore glandes. Radices alii cogentur vellere longas Unguibus et miseris epulis assuescere dentes. Occident alii tauros fortesque iuvencos, Quos quondam socios comitesque habuere laborum.
Alter equum sternet, quo debellaverat hostes Saepius, et belli tulerat decus atque triumphum. Mercibus abiectis mercator caedet asellum, Cum sibi iam nihil — ah — cernet superesse ciborum. Praecipue infelix aderit foecunda virorum Paupertas et damna feret Famis impia multa. Aspicient miseri morientia pignora patres. Proh dolor, auxilium poterunt nec ferre, sed una Occumbent, pariterque animam sine vulnere fundent. Arida pressabunt infantes ubera matrum, Evictique fame pariter cum matre peribunt.
Non tam crudelis, quam somnia visa dedere Aegypto, fuit illa fames, nam maximus ille Interpres potuit fatis obstare malignis. Non, quae Samariam depasta est tempore multo, Aut talis vel tanta fuit, quo tempore aselli Vendebant multo pretio caput atque columbae Stercora, cum Syriae Benadab rex verteret urbem. Illa minor, quae Achabi subvertit regna potentis, Cum millas daret aether aquas nec nubila caelum Ov.
Illa etiam inferior, Solymos quae afflixit et urbem Eruit, infelix quo tempore mater adacta Visceribus propriis immergere viscera nati. Verte, libet, Graias Romanorumque togatas Historias, gentis peregrinae gesta revolve: Non tantum scaevit, Capitolia grandia Gallis Quae dare Romanos repulit, cum signa Camillus Rettulit, exilio patriam revocatus in urbem. Non tam terribilis, sub qua Casilinus adactus Detraxit pelles clypeis et molliit undis Hasque edit, mures cum consumpsisset olentes, Ut socias leges Romanaque iura teneret. Quid Praenestinos referam, quos barbarus ille Hannibal oppressif tantum, tantumque refregit, Ut nummis videas murem venire trecentis?
Quid Cretas, longa qui ex obsidione Metelli Urinam propriam miseri pecudumque bibere? Quidque Numantinos, quos mandere dentibus atris Humanas carnes artusque vorare cruentos Scipio crudelis consumptis omnibus egit? Quid tandem memorem crudos scaevosque parentes Callaguritanios, quos dum convincere Magnus Obsidione parat, duros belloque feroces Omnibus absumptis ad dulcia pignora versos Uxoresque ferunt, quo se quoque longius ipsos Servarent, carnes sale conspersisse prophanos?
His maiora aderunt, magis his crudelia cement Tentabuntque viri, stimulis famis usque coacti. Hinc quoque Tisiphone, Furiarum maxima, surget Et veniens caelum sparget terrasque venenis, Inficiet vitio fontes pariterque lacusque. Et primo fiet pestis volucrum pecudumque. Agricola infelix fortes cecidisse iuvencos Conspiciet, moestusque humeris attollet aratrum. Acer equus, multas tulerat qui in pulvere palmas, Immemor et palmae, veterumque oblitus honorum, Ad praesepe gemens loeto morietur inerti.
Nesciet irasci vel aper, vel fidere cursu Audebunt cervae; non magni armenta leones Invadent, non ursus erit, qui terreat agnos. Mors erit in cunctis et plurima mortis imago. Mortibus implebunt terram volucresque feraeque; Corporibus foedis nitidus vitiabitur aer. Perque viros tandem labetur tabida pestis, Inficientque alios alii; dum serviet aegro Ipse pater nato, natusque paterque peribunt. Et frater busto dum corpora reddere curat, Tertius occumbet pariter, pariterque peribit. Infelix genitrix morientia pignora cernet, Seque parans ad opem quocunque tremente ferendam, In partem loeti veniet partemque ruinae.
Dumque suo assistens quicumque fidelius aegro Serviet, hic citius vicina peste peribit. Non aderunt, qui tunc demandent corpora bustis: Per silvas passim, per tecta et strata iacebunt. Quocumque invertes oculos, quocumque subibis, Prostratum vulgus cernes, miserabile visu! Ut concussa solent ex arbore mitia poma Comiere aut veteri maturae ex illice glandes, Sic ruet infelix vulgus passimque iacebit. Et caeli quoque signa dabunt horrenda: Cometas Prospicies diros caelo fulgere sereno.
Saepius et fratri nitido contraria Phoebe Ibit et obscuros hunc coget tollere vultus. Saepius in varios vertetur Luna colores, Et modo sanguineis maculis, modo turbida nigris. Et Sol non semper claram dabit aethere lucem: Verg. Obscurum insolito splendorem sidera reddent, Ignibus et crebris caelum terraeque micabunt. Plurima de caelo demittet fulmina dextra Omnipotens. Quantus mortales terror habebit! Flammarum tractus videas volitare per auras, Ardentesque polos cernes, caelumque tonare, Armorumque sonos, quales Germania caelo Audiit atque ingens extincto Caesare Roma.
Et tellus, tanti non inscia vasta furoris, Mugitus dabit horrendos motusque frequentes. Plurima tecta ruent, aedes et templa deorum. Evomet Aetna globos flammarum et plurima circum Exuret castella urbesque domosque virosque, Parturient montes variarum monstra ferarum. Horrendas silvis importunasque volucres Cernes, obscoenasque canes longosque colubros. Cristati excurrent et picti colla dracones Et medios tauros amplexi fortia rampent Tergora et expassis alis tollentur in auras. Dipsades exibunt terra dirique cerastae, Infesti armentis, teneris et ovilibus aegri.
Aeolus emittet vasto de carcere ventos, Qui mare perturbent, totumque a sedibus imis Commoveant, vastos tollant ad litora fluctus. Inde mari incumbent, vastosque a sedibus imis Attollent fluctus, caelum terramque revolvent Ad Ditem. Lybien quisquis mercator et Indos Ibit, tunc miserum pariter cum merce peribit. Aspiciet pelagi faciem excandescere et ira Eruere, et ante oculos patris volitabit imago Huic, alii mater natique et amabilis uxor. Intendet pars una suos subducere remos, Altera nitetur vento data vela negare Candida; dumque illud nulla ratione geretur, Ingenio sibi quisque suo studioque nocebit.
Ipse ratis rector nescire fatebitur omnem Hanc pelagi faciem, nullamque huc afferet artem, Ignarusque artisque, viae, plenusque timoris, Nesciet infelix, quidnam iubeatque velitque. Tanta mali moles, tantus fragor ipse rudentum, Tantus et ipse virum clamor planctusque sonabit! Impetus undarum sese super aethera tollet, Quas magnos tetigisse polos aspergine credas. Et varus vicibus navis modo ad alta trahetur, Despectans Acheronta imum vallesque iacentes, Et modo summissa vastaque voragine pressa, Prospiciet caelum, veluti ex Acheronte profundo; Nunc dabit ingentem fluctu percussa fragorem: Concussi exilient cunei, spoliataque cerae Tegmine, rima aditus dabit exitialibus undis.
Fundentur largi resolutis nubibus imbres, Inque fretum totum credas descendere caelum; Inque polos pelagus tumefactum ascendere dicas. Vela procellosi scindent Eurusque Notusque, Nocte vagabuntur caeca caecisque tenebris, Lumina nulla poli nisi fulgura missa videntes. Desuper imber erit, rimis maris unda meabit, Ut pereat, iam navis erit, mergatque profundo Seque suosque duces, quos non benefida tulisset. Mortis erit prior ipse metus, maior quoque morte. Utque solent cives muros fodientibus extra Hostibus intremere, ut trepidantia moenia cernunt, Iam lachrimans quisquis, quae sit tormenta daturas, Cogitat, et mortem, quam sit passurus ab hoste, Iamque prior mortis metus est, maior quoque morte: Verg.
Ars omnisque animique cadent, credentque mentes In sese fluctus vastos prorumpere montes. Huic erit ante oculos matrisque patrisque senectus, Huic dulces nati et coniunx viduanda marito. Talia convolvent animis miseranda caterva, Clamoremque ferent super astra, deosque vocabunt; Quos Pater Omnipotens tandem miseratus ab alto, Fracta puppe omni demerget in aequora cunctos.
Signa haec praecedent venturum horrenda furorem, Quae dudum vates, dudum cecinere Sibyllae. Sed iam te recrea, viresque resume, Camoena. Sunt tibi praemissis multo maiora canenda, Qualiter Antitheos, qui se Omnipotente creatum Efferat, adveniet, Christoque inimica potenti Bella ciens, plebem evertat populumque fidelem. Liber secundus 5 10 Post haec Antitheos veniet, cacodaemone magno, Ut referunt, ortus fotusque et adultus ad omnem Perniciem; Babylon patria est, testante propheta, Danque tribus.
Solymis sua qui tentoria primum Figet, et has sedes primumque loca illa tenebit. Quare barbaricis stipabitur undique turbis, Et circumcisus veterum de more parentum, Promissum verum se fabitur affore Christum. O Iudea cohors, o gens stultissima, damnis Laeta tuis, natum cacodaemone numen adoras, Expectas precibusque vocas, nimiumque morantem Compellis votis, truculentaque monstra precaris. O novisse virum quam te, plebs stulta, pigebit, Verg. O gens crudelis, propriaeque inimica saluti, Quid nocitura colis? Quid vota effundis in hostem?
Romulidaeque quondam, genus insuperabile bello, Dicuntur pluresque deos coluisse deasque, Ast alios ob virtutes praeclaraque gesta.
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Unde et Saturnum curva cum falce, lovemque Sacrarunt, Cereremque almam, magnamque Minervam; Fortunamque dedere deam, caeloque locarunt; Et puerum Alcidem, crudelia monstra domantem, Atque Neoptolemum monstrantem munera matris Humano generi, et Bacchum nova vina prementem. Tu quoque, Rubigo, factum de marmore templum Servasti et multo placata es sanguine saepe, Ne teneras laedas segetes fructicosaque vastes. Tunc quoque sacrata est Febris, meruitque sacellum, Ne furiata ruens mortales pasceret artus. Inde etiam Pharii dirum cocodrillon adorant, Ne noceat virusque effundat in aera purum.
Isti ob virtutes alios aliosque deorum Sacrarunt, cui ne fera turba noceret; et unum lam non cementes caeli terraeque potentem Esse Deum, qui cuncta suis moderatur habenis, 40 45 50 Quique dat adversi quicquid venit atque secundi. Quare iam venia digni sunt, si qua malignis Est permissa, tamen veniamque hanc quisque meretur. Perfide, sed quid tu tantum, ludaee, procaci Obsistens animo, quem iam venisse fatentur Pontificum sacri libri certique prophetae, Ipse negas, hominemque deum facis esse profanum? Expectas votisque vocas cacodaemone natum? Quae virtus hominis tete, o stultissime, ducit Ad cultum, quaeve utilitas?
Hanc fare, precamur! Utile quid tribuat, qui totus inutilis exstat? Perfide, quid dubitas oriundum e virgine Christum Credere, quidve times? Hemanuelque puer dicetur, roscida mella Quique edat et pingui butyro saepe fruatur, Quo reprobare malum noscat, iustumque fovere. Dum tu, qui caeli et terrae moderaris habenas, In cumulo foeni parvus nudusque iaceres, Bosque tibi, modo asellus iners praestaret alumni Officium, atque Deum colerent hominemque foverent.
Ecce novus foetus summo descendit Olympo. Obstruet ora viris cunctisque silentia ponet. Hinc synagogaeae dissolvet vincla catervae, Cerneturque hominum vivens rex atque deorum, Intemerata suo gremio quem virgo fovebit. Mortalis sub carne fui, sapiensque stupendis Prodigiis; sed me populus Chaldeus in armis Captum tormentis, mortis stimulisque dedere. Infelix animo stat turba procaci, Nec natum credit, cruce nec periisse sub alta, Nec sua ab innocuo descendere sanguine damna. At veniet, tu quem expectas, Iudaee sceleste! Ne dubita, adveniet, Stygiasque retrudet ad undas Cultores proprios et talia praemia reddet.
Hic est horrendum monstrum, quod gutture perflans Septeno atque decem tumidum per cornua frontem Cornibus, et totidem gestans diademata in altis, E vasto pelago conscendit ab usque profundo, Quod meminit divus sese inspectasse Iohannes. Hic leo terribilis, medium per colla iubasque Quem raptum Samson partes distraxit in ambas. Hic est horribilis moles Nemaea, lacertis Disiecta Alcidae, forti clavaque relisa. Hic Ditis custos est Cerberus ore trifauci, Herculea domitusque manu tractusque per Orcum.
Hic et Erichthonius sparso de semine natus, Hic Erymanthei crudelis bestia saltus, Atque Hydra immanis per plurima colla resurgens. Hic Minotaurus adest, monstrum ingens atque biforme, Dictaeas diris implens mugitibus arces. Latonae violentus aper, cuique horrida cervix Lactantius Div.
Iam iam aderit. Cane vitam hominis moresque venustos, Musa, Deo dignos; cane gesta ducisque triumphos, Quaeque sit in terris veniens documenta daturus; Et Christi nostri vitam conferre pudicam Iam libeat, possis similem quoque credere Christum. Virginis ingrediens alvum, de Virgine natus Christus: virginei nec sunt violata pudoris Claustra, nec humanum est morem nascendo secutus. Praeterea natus stetit inter inertia bruta, Et teneris humeris iuncos compressit acutos Sordidaque incoluit Iudae magalia parvus.
Sola parens nutrixque fuit, solusque minister Ipse pater, fuit hic servorum nobilis ordo. Angelicae applaudunt, circumstant undique turbae. Dum vixit, semper profugus semperque misellus, Pauperiem amplexusque gravem atque extrema secutus, Contentus modico propriam producere vitam. Sedabat Ceres ipsa famem, fons ipse sitimque: Fabricios, Curiosque probans, rigidosque Catones, Aetatisque sequens documenta probanda prioris, Quae repulit rictus dapibus maculare cruentis, Arbore glandifera et contenta fidelibus arvis, Dulcibus et pomis, tumidisque in vitibus uvis, Melleque, quod floremque thymi redoletque saporem.
Exemplo et monitis docuit, quae semita habenda Ov. Sprevit opes, pompas neglexit, sprevit honores: Cultura solus dignus, solusque verendus, Solus honorandus cunctis, solusque colendus. Quem ludaea cohors, odiis agitata prophanis, Dum dulces monitus, dum dat praecepta salutis, In cruce confixit, poenisque subegit amaris, Felle prius potans miserum Stygiisque venenis. Haec veri Christi vita est moresque pudici, Qui moriens Stygiis mortales traxit ab undis.
Antithei nunc monstra canam, nunc improba facta. Nascetur magno Antitheos cacodaemone, stupro Commisso et sacra compressa virgine, qual i Romulus, aetheriae Romanae conditor arcis. Tunc Pluto inferna mittet de sede sorores, Quae puerum foveant, alimentaque mitia praestent. Alecto adveniet gestans pro crinibus angues, Tisiphoneque ultrix, diro succincta flagello, Atque furens flammis odiorum scaeva Megaera. Quaeque suum officium peraget; spirabit amorem Bellorum vertetque animos ad bella Megaera. Luxuriem Alecto rerum lautosque paratus Infundet labiis, terra pelagoque redemptas Delitias, largasque dapes mensasque superbas.
Tisiphone irarum stimulos animosque tumentes Atque feros addet, virusque in viscera condet. Hinc, quae cuncta movet, Venus et cum matre Cupido Lascivus venient; et totam se ingeret illi Ipsa Venus, pariterque puer volitantia tela Promet; et adducto tremulo per cornua nervo Aurea transibit volucris per corda sagitta Et totas venas percurret tabida pestis.