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Vitamin A: Health benefits and risks
Conflicts of Interest Disclosure Identify all potential conflicts of interest that might be relevant to your comment. Err on the side of full disclosure. Yes, I have potential conflicts of interest. No, I do not have potential conflicts of interest. Limit characters or approximately words. The following information is required and must be completed in order to submit a comment:. Thank You. Your comment submission was successful. Please allow up to 2 business days for review, approval, and posting. James Larsen, M. The problem with saying a "healthy diet" will meet all nutritional needs is that it is an intervention that also requires research and proof.
The USDA says nutrients levels in food have declined significantly due to farming practices. Suggesting someone can get enough vit D in their diet is actually extremely difficult Holick, Heaney , if not either unaffordable or impossible. There are other plant-based diet folks who are not vegetarians who are at risk for a variety of nutrient deficiencies Moran.
The AF documented that All had passed a comprehensive physical. Nutrient deficiency rates increase significantly in military basic training Westphal on a diet designed by professional dietitians. Rivero documented very high rates of osteopenia in stress fractures in Navy training. These findings may also apply to an athletic population due to sweat losses and tissue damage IOM, Kleges, Lappe. Or look at Wagner's studies with vitamin D and pregnant and nursing women. Therefore, the issue becomes how to cost-effectively identify the significant numbers of folks with deficiencies and treat them.
At a minimum, folks with low trauma bone injuries should be evaluated and treated for likely underlying malnutrition Brown. Learn more. Sign in to access your subscriptions Sign in to your personal account. Create a free personal account to download free article PDFs, sign up for alerts, and more. Purchase access Subscribe to the journal. Buy this article. Rent this article. Sign in to download free article PDFs Sign in to access your subscriptions Sign in to your personal account. Get free access to newly published articles Create a personal account or sign in to: Register for email alerts with links to free full-text articles Access PDFs of free articles Manage your interests Save searches and receive search alerts.
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Here's how to maintain a healthy weight by consuming the right amount and types of fat Encourage children to drink and enjoy water. Sweet drinks such as juice, cordial and soft drinks may cause health problems for children if consumed in large amounts Consumption of drinks containing added sugar is associated with weight gain, reduced bone strength and tooth erosion and decay A balanced UV approach is required to ensure some sun exposure for vitamin D while minimising the risk of skin cancer Antioxidants scavenge free radicals from the body's cells, and prevent or reduce the damage caused by oxidation If you don't have enough calcium in your diet, your bones will eventually become weak and brittle Even women who aren't planning to have a baby should increase their folate intake in case of unplanned pregnancy A balanced approach to sunlight exposure will help you get enough vitamin D while protecting against skin cancer There is no evidence that any one vitamin can slow ageing, restore sex drive or cure infertility No special diet or 'miracle food' can cure arthritis, but some conditions may be helped by avoiding or including certain foods It is important to identify any foods or food chemicals that may trigger your asthma, but this must be done under strict medical supervision Diet can influence your risk of developing some cancers, but there is no evidence that specific foods can cause or cure cancer Replacing foods that contain saturated fats with foods that contain polyunsaturated and monounsaturated fats will help to lower your cholesterol The Food Standards Code requires that certain foods must be listed on the package of a food, or made known to the customer upon request.
If you experience an allergic reaction to a known allergen not This health assessment questionnaire will identify which zones of your lifestyle are contributing to your personal health risk and provide actions you can take to make positive change A diet low in saturated fats and high in fibre and plant foods can substantially reduce your risk of developing heart disease Weight loss is often associated with Huntington's disease, but it doesn? People with type 2 diabetes talk about positive lifestyle changes that improve their quality of life The long-term effects of consuming a combination of different additives in our food are currently unknown Some foods include ingredients that have been genetically modified GM , or are made using ingredients derived from GM organisms Chemicals such as pesticides, antibiotics and hormones are used to boost food production and ensure adequate food supply Pregnant women and young children should limit consumption of fish that contain high levels of mercury Children who skip breakfast may lack sufficient vitamins and minerals including iron, calcium, zinc and vitamin B Victorian State Public Health Nutritionist, Veronica Graham shows us how to cook a light and healthy Christmas meal without overindulging.
Whatever way you celebrate, there are ways to eat healthily Birthday parties can be healthy as well as fun. Some popular food from different cultures is high in fat and kilojoules. There are, however, some healthy alternatives Reporter Flip Shelton takes us on a tour and shows us what fresh produce is available at a local market You can buy more food if you spend most of your money on basic healthy foods like bread, cereals, fruit and vegies Eating healthy food doesn't mean giving up your favourite foods and switching to eating only salads Nutritionist Shane Bilsborough shows us how much energy it takes to burn off a fast food lunch.
Join tradies, Corky and Danny as they find out how to maintain a healthy weight Victorian State Public Health Nutritionist Veronica Graham takes us shopping for the right foods to include in your childs lunchbox Victorian State Public Health Nutritionist Veronica Graham shares three healthy and delicious lunchbox examples for the kids and provides some great food preparation tips to save you time throughout Labels on packaged food can give you useful information about the nutrition, ingredients, storage and weight of the food.
Add full stop to pull quote Victorian State Nutritionist, Veronica Graham talks about the benefits of shopping at fresh produce markets Most of us are prone to the odd snack or two. Check out these simple tips to keep your snacks on track Cockroaches prefer to live in kitchens and other food preparation areas, so they can feed off food spills In a gas or electricity blackout you may have to think laterally to come up with ways to continue bathing, eating and keeping warm People who fish in the Lower Yarra and Maribyrnong rivers need to be careful about eating their catch because of the risk of chemical exposure Listeria infection is uncommon but very dangerous for the elderly, people whose immune systems are not working properly and pregnant women and their unborn babies In the hot weather there is a higher risk of food poisoning but if you follow some simple rules when you prepare, handle and store food it will significantly reduce your risk of getting sick Washing your hands with soap and warm water can help prevent the spread of infectious diseases Some people diet because they have a poor body image, not because they want to be a healthy weight Following this information can lead to better health at any stage of your life Breastfeeding women need to eat regularly and include a wide variety of healthy foods in their diet There are a number of ways that a person with a disability can successfully avoid unwanted weight loss First foods for babies can be prepared easily and cheaply at home without salt, seasonings and sweeteners Offer children the same foods as the family, with a variety of textures and flavours for balanced nutrition Children are able to decide how much food they need for activity and growth if allowed to eat according to their appetite Snacks are an important part of a healthy diet for active children, so offer nutritious as well as high energy snacks The nutritional requirements of the human body change as we move through different life stages Good nutrition, a healthy diet and physical activity can help Elders prevent or manage health problems Good nutrition and physical exercise help to keep Koori kids healthy and avoid diseases when they get older Some foods should be avoided during pregnancy as they carry bacteria that could harm your unborn baby As an adolescent boy aged 14 to 18 you need enough nutritious food to help you grow and develop Life for men aged 19 to 50 is typically full of major life events.
As a man between the ages of 51 and 70, your body becomes less efficient at absorbing nutrients from the food and drink you consume Being in good health as you reach 70 and beyond allows you to spend more time doing the things that are important to you such as travelling, volunteering, caring for someone or catching up with As you get older you need fewer calories, but your need for other nutrients remains unchanged. This page has been produced in consultation with and approved by: Deakin University - School of Exercise and Nutrition Sciences.
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Supplements: Nutrition in a pill?
Listen show more. More show more. Vitamins are organic compounds used by the body in small amounts for various metabolic processes. Vitamin supplements cannot replace a healthy diet. Those who may need vitamin supplements include women who are pregnant or breastfeeding, people who consume alcohol in amounts over those recommended as safe, drug users, and the elderly. Vitamins are organic compounds that our bodies use, in very small amounts, for a variety of metabolic processes. It is best to get vitamins and minerals from eating a variety of healthy unprocessed foods.
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Vitamin and mineral deficiencies Your body only needs a small amount of vitamins and minerals every day. A varied diet generally provides enough of each vitamin and mineral. However, some people may need supplements to correct deficiencies of particular vitamins or minerals. People who may benefit from vitamin and mineral supplements include: pregnant women women who are breastfeeding people who drink alcohol above the amount that is recommended for reducing risk of disease one standard drink a day for non-pregnant women and two for men cigarette smokers illegal drug users crash dieters or people on chronic low-calorie diets the elderly especially those who are disabled or chronically ill some vegetarians or vegans women with excessive bleeding during menstruation people with allergies to particular foods people with malabsorption problems such as diarrhoea, coeliac disease or pancreatitis.
Women planning a pregnancy should consider taking folic acid folate supplements to reduce the risk of neural tube defects in the baby. Folic acid can also be found in some fortified foods such as some breads.
Foods fortified with folic acid have the nutrient added to them during production to boost their nutritional value. Vitamins and minerals from food Research indicates that most of the vitamins you get from the food you eat are better than those contained in pills. The main exception to this is folate. The synthetic form in a supplement or fortified food is actually better absorbed by the body than folate from food sources. Food is a complex source of vitamins, minerals and phytochemicals plant chemicals , which all work together.
Supplements tend to work in isolation. Research has shown that a food component that has a particular effect on the body may not have the same effect when it is isolated and taken as a supplement. Phytochemicals are an important component of food and are thought to reduce the incidence of heart disease and some cancers. Supplements do not provide the benefits of phytochemicals and other components found in food.
Taking vitamin and mineral supplements is no substitute for a healthy diet.
Using vitamin and mineral pills like medicine It is commonly believed that taking mega-doses of certain vitamins will act like medicine to cure or prevent certain ailments. For instance, vitamin C is suggested as a cure for the common cold, and vitamin E is widely promoted as a beneficial antioxidant to help prevent heart disease. After extensive research, however, neither of these claims has been shown to be true. Large-scale studies have consistently shown little benefit in taking mega-doses of supplements. In fact, there is some evidence that taking high-dose supplements to prevent or cure major chronic diseases, such as heart disease and cancer, may be harmful to your health.
Vitamin and mineral supplements can be toxic in high doses Taking higher than recommended doses of some vitamins may cause problems. For example, the vitamins A, D, E and K are fat soluble, which means they are stored in the body. High doses of these vitamins can be toxic. High doses of some water soluble vitamins, like vitamin B6, can also become toxic. Large folate intakes can hide vitamin B12 deficiencies. In extreme cases, for example, where people take times the recommended dietary intake RDI , this can stop the work of anticonvulsant drugs, such as those used in epilepsy.
Excessive doses of some minerals may also cause problems. At just five times the RDI, zinc, iron, chromium and selenium can be raised to toxic levels in the body. For example: Large intakes of fluoride especially in childhood may stain, and even weaken, the teeth.
Very large doses of fish oil can lead to decreased blood clotting. Iron toxicity is also common. Even a small amount over the RDI can cause gastrointestinal upset, nausea and black bowel actions poo. Severe toxicity can lead to coma and even death. High levels of vitamin B6 have been linked to some types of nerve damage. Doses of vitamin C above one gram can cause diarrhoea.
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High doses of vitamin A may cause birth defects, as well as central nervous system, liver, bone and skin disorders. For a healthy adult, if supplements are used, they should generally be taken at levels close to the RDI. High-dose supplements should not be taken unless recommended under medical advice. Stress, tiredness and vitamin pills Vitamin supplements are commonly considered to be an antidote to stress.